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Germanium (Ge)

Crystal properties   Germanium
Crystal Type: cubic, diamond structure
Transmission Range 1.8 ... 23 µm
Refractive Index 4.0034 @ 9.72 µm,
4.0028 @ 10.6 µm
Reflective Loss 52.9 % @ 10 µm
Density 5.323 g/cm3  
Melting Point 956, 959, 942, 938 °C  
Molecular Weight 72.59  
Thermal Conductivity 58.61 W/(m K)  
Specific Heat 310 J/(kg K) @ 25 °C  
Thermal Expansion 5.5×10–6 / K, 6.1×10–6 / K  
Hardness (Knoop) 780  
Young’s Modulus 102.7 <100>, 155.3 <111> GPa  
Shear Modulus 67 <100> GPa  
Bulk Modulus 77.2 GPa  
Rupture Modulus 93 MPa  
Elastic Coefficient: C11 = 129 / C12 = 48.3 / C44 = 67.1 GPa  
Dielectric Constant 16.6 @ f = 9.37 GHz  
Solubility in Water Insoluble  
Application Electronics lenses, band pass filters, thermography  
Remarks laser damage threshold: 2.9 ...3.3 GW / cm2  
     
Germanium substrates  Germanium (Ge) -Substrates

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